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Yale Wong is a Doctoral Candidate and Research Analyst at the Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies (ITLS) at the University of Sydney Business School. His present research is to market test mobility as a service (MaaS) with respect to demanders and suppliers, supervised by Professors David Hensher and Corinne Mulley. He holds the Busways Group and University of Sydney Business School Postgraduate Scholarship on Public Transport Systems. Yale has completed projects for the Bus Industry Confederation and Sustainable Business Australia, and recently concluded a three-month study visit to South Africa funded by the Volvo Research and Educational Foundations. He has worked previously in bus operations with experience in network planning and service development.


  • June 12: The Planning and Governance urban mobility: The Devil is in the Detail

    Mode-agnostic mobility contracts: Identifying broker/aggregator models for delivering mobility as a service (MaaS)

    Mobility as a service (MaaS) promises a bold new future where bundled public transport and shared mobility options will provide consumers with seamless mobility on par with and exceeding that of private vehicle ownership. Whilst there is a growing body of work examining the market and end user demand for MaaS, there remains a limited understanding of the supply-side around new business models for delivering these integrated mobility services. Mobility broker/aggregator models have been proposed, but to date there exists no quantitative evidence to empirically test the conditions around which interested businesses might invest or supply in this new entrepreneurial model. In this paper, we propose the idea of mode-agnostic mobility contracts as the interface for bringing together specialised businesses as part of the new MaaS ecosystem. We identify the relevant attributes and attribute levels defining these contracts through an extensive interview and participatory research program with key stakeholders including MaaS operators, conventional transport operators, public transport authorities and consultancies, with a focus in the Nordic countries where such schemes are presently well advanced. These mobility contracts were then incorporated as part of a stated choice survey, and we document the face-to-face pilot used to finesse the survey instrument prior to the main survey. A mixed logit choice model based on collected data (n=202) is presented to showcase the potential of our stated preference survey to reveal what the market is willing to deliver in terms of MaaS and how the future service delivery ecosystem might look. This is an innovative first view on the topic and combined with demand-side data allows us to determine the commercial, market-led equilibrium for MaaS. Government can then evaluate whether it finds these results acceptable, aligning with the broader societal and urban efficiency goals of cities, or whether an institutional overlay will be required to ensure that these objectives can be met.