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Yale Wong is Doctoral Candidate and Research Analyst at the Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies (ITLS): Australian Key Centre in Transport Management at the University of Sydney Business School. Yale’s research focus encompasses three core facets in future mobility, transport contracts and bus operations. A major area of work for Yale is to market test the mobility as a service (MaaS) proposition with the aim to understand what the community demands and businesses are willing to provide. As part of this, Yale won the David Willis Prize (2018) for pioneering work using stated choice methods to identify the structure of broker/aggregator mobility contracts. Yale has also received the ITLS Research Prize (2018) and was selected amongst a competitive pool as Youth Ambassador (2019) representing Australia at the 26th Intelligent Transport Systems World Congress in Singapore. In addition, Yale undertakes a number of advisory and consultancy projects with clients ranging from bus operators to industry associations, vehicle suppliers and local government. Having previously worked in bus operations with experience in network planning and service development, Yale continues to be called upon regularly by the bus industry in his now strategic capacity looking to the future of the industry in an era of disruption and change.


  • June 12: The Planning and Governance urban mobility: The Devil is in the Detail

    Mode-agnostic mobility contracts: Identifying broker/aggregator models for delivering mobility as a service (MaaS)

    Mobility as a service (MaaS) promises a bold new future where bundled public transport and shared mobility options will provide consumers with seamless mobility on par with and exceeding that of private vehicle ownership. Whilst there is a growing body of work examining the market and end user demand for MaaS, there remains a limited understanding of the supply-side around new business models for delivering these integrated mobility services. Mobility broker/aggregator models have been proposed, but to date there exists no quantitative evidence to empirically test the conditions around which interested businesses might invest or supply in this new entrepreneurial model. In this paper, we propose the idea of mode-agnostic mobility contracts as the interface for bringing together specialised businesses as part of the new MaaS ecosystem. We identify the relevant attributes and attribute levels defining these contracts through an extensive interview and participatory research program with key stakeholders including MaaS operators, conventional transport operators, public transport authorities and consultancies, with a focus in the Nordic countries where such schemes are presently well advanced. These mobility contracts were then incorporated as part of a stated choice survey, and we document the face-to-face pilot used to finesse the survey instrument prior to the main survey. A mixed logit choice model based on collected data (n=202) is presented to showcase the potential of our stated preference survey to reveal what the market is willing to deliver in terms of MaaS and how the future service delivery ecosystem might look. This is an innovative first view on the topic and combined with demand-side data allows us to determine the commercial, market-led equilibrium for MaaS. Government can then evaluate whether it finds these results acceptable, aligning with the broader societal and urban efficiency goals of cities, or whether an institutional overlay will be required to ensure that these objectives can be met.